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Saturday, December 27, 2008


For everything you wanted to know on building leadership and management, refer Shyam Bhatawdekar’s website:

(Refer our High Quality Management Encyclopedia “Management Universe” at:

Meanings of Personality
  • Character
  • Traits
  • Behavior
  • Qualities
  • Individuality
  • Persona

In all, personality is the totality of one's attitudes, interests, behavioral patterns, emotional responses, social roles and other individual traits that endure over long periods of time.

It is the assimilation (integration) of the different ways an individual in which he proacts or reacts to and interacts with other people and situations.

Constituents of Total Personality of an Individual

  • External personality
  • Internal personality

External and Internal Personalities: In order to shape up your overall personality, both your external and internal personalities count- you actually display outwardly as well as what you really are. At times, you may succeed in displaying good side of you despite your internally weak personality but it requires lots of efforts. On the other side, if your internal personality is good, you can learn to display yourself that way easily with much less efforts.

Both the types of personalities are important. While internal personality is the real you and your all time asset and that should be excellent, it is important to have impressive external personality too, as you are aware that at times, first impression may be the last impression. You mat not get another chance to correct that impression if it was not OK for the other person who matters to you.

It is important to improve both the elements of the personality. Good external personality is necessary to create first good impression on the people. However, over the long term, one's internal personality element is more important, useful and lasting. One should have integrated internal personality.

Refer URLs: (Executive Etiquette and Manners), (Cross Cultural Etiquette and Manners) and (Telephone Etiquette)

Determinants of Personality

  • Heredity
  • Environment

Approaches/Frameworks for Identifying and Classifying Personality Traits

1. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Based on the responses to a personality test of 100 questions, the person taking the test is classified as:

  • Extrovert or introvert
  • Sensing or intuitive
  • Thinking or feeling
  • Judging or perceiving

2. The Big Five Model

One's score on big five factors given below determine one's personality as per this model. The scores can be high, average or low on the following five traits:

  • Extroversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Emotional stability
  • Openness to experience

Extroverts and Introverts

Extroverts: Tough minded, need strong and varied stimulation, crave excitement, prefer change, act impulsively, active, take risks, optimistic, display their emotions, expressive, have many friends, sociable, need people to talk to, carefree, enjoy practical jokes, unreliable, aggressive, quick tempered.

Introverts: Tender minded, do not need much external stimuli, have little excitement, appreciate order, distrust impulse, quiet, plan ahead, pessimistic, suppress their emotions, reserved, prefer books to people, introspective, withdrawn, lead careful sober life, experience strong emotions, reliable, retiring, worry about moral standards.

Measuring Personality

There three main ways of measurement of personality of an individual:

  • Self report surveys
  • Observer ratings surveys
  • Projective measures (Rorschach Inkblot Test and Thematic Appreciation Test)

Some Popular Instruments to Measure Specific Aspects of Personality

1. Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B)

Refer: (Interpersonal Relations)

FIBO-B is used as an instrument (questionnaire) to identify a person's basic behavior patterns in interpersonal relations. The instrument produces six main scores: three on behavior expressed towards others and three on behavior wanted from others in the areas of inclusion, control and affection.

Expressed behavior is the behavior which a person shows to others in his relations with them. Wanted behavior is the behavior which a person desires from others i.e. the behavior which he wants others to adopt when relating with him.

After knowing the scores, one can get them interpreted by an expert knowing FIRO-B. Based on the interpretations, action plan can be drawn out to improve interpersonal relations.

2. Work Patterns and Stress Related Personality Type "A" and Type "B"

By taking this test, using instrument (questionnaire) of ten questions, individual's work patterns and stress related personalities can be found out. There are two classifications: Type "A" and Type "B" personality. Having known the type of personality, actions can be planned and initiated by the individual to improve his personality, if necessary, under the guidance of an expert.

For details refer: (Work Patterns Exercise)

3. Winners and Losers

There are many instruments (questionnaires) available to find out the winner and loser aspects of one's personality. One should use these self introspecting questionnaires with care, making sure that the questionnaire chosen is a validated one.

Refer URL: (Winners and Losers)

Value Structure

An individual's value structure is very important factor in determining one's personality- mainly the internal personality element which is more important constituent element of personality. Values are fundamental truths or principles. One who follows these values has a more integrated and stronger inner core or internal personality.

For details, refer: (Effectiveness Management: HSoftware) and (Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)

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For Other Topics of Interest

All Management Topics (General Management, Marketing and Sales, Service, Operations/Manufacturing, Quality, Maintenance, Human Resources, Finance and Accounts, Information Technology, Life Management)

The topics are listed in alphabetic order:

(Home Pages for All the Management Topics) and
(Building Leadership and Management)
(Alphabetic List of All Management Topics)
(Home Page for Writings of Shyam Bhatawdekar)
(5S Housekeeping)
(Activity Based Costing- ABC)
(Anger Management)
(Assessment Centers)
(A to Z of Management Systems)
(A to Z of Quality Techniques)
(Balanced Scorecard)
(Basic Statistics)
(Behavioral Safety)
(Body Language or Non-verbal Communication)
(Books- Best Management Books)
(Business Ethics and Ethics in Management) (Business Plan)
(Business Process Reengineering- BPR)
(Career Planning within Organizations)
(Case Method)
(Case Studies in Management)
(CEO Roles, Qualities and Competencies)
(Change Management)
(Competencies- Life Management)
(Competency Matrix)
(Conflict Management)
(Corporate Governance)
(Cost Management)
(Cost of Quality- COQ)
(Counseling at Workplace)
(Creativity and Innovation)
(Critical Thinking skills)
(Cross Cultural Etiquette and Manners)
(Customer Orientation)
(Customer Relationship management- CRM)
(Daily Management)
(Decision Making)
(Design for Manufacture)
(Dining Etiquette and Table Manners)
(Discipline at Work)
(Dream Exotic)
(Effectiveness and Efficiency)
(Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Efficiency Techniques: Work study: Motion and Time Study)
(Efficient Work Methods or Practices)
(Email Etiquette)
(Emotional Intelligence)
(Enterprise Resource Planning- ERP)
(Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneur)
(Executive Etiquette and Manners)
(Exit Interview)
(Financial Ratios and Financial Ratio Analysis)
(Financial Services)
(Functions of Management)
(Gemba Kaizen)
(Genuine Professional)
(Global Mindset)
(Goal/Target Setting)
(Group Discussion)
(Group Dynamics)
(How to Be a Good Boss)
(How to Get Promoted)
(How to save Money)
(HR Dynamics)
(HR Strategies and Functions)
(Human Capital Architecture)
(Human Relations)
(Human Resource Planning)
(Human Software- HSoftware)
(Internal Motivation or Self Motivation)
(Interpersonal Relations)
(Interview Skills)
(Interview Preparation for Job Seekers)
(Interview Questions)
(Just in Time Management- JIT)
(Knowledge Management)
(Lead Time Management)
(Lean Enterprise)
(Learning Organization)
(Life Management: Competencies)
(Life Management: Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Life Management: I Am Liberated)
(Life Positions and OKness)
(Life Skills)
(Management Anecdotes)
(Management Book- Best Books)
(Management Information System- MIS)
(Managing/conducting Meetings)
(Management Notes- Free and Authentic)
(Marginal Utility)
(Marketing Management Overview)
(Marketing Management Tasks)
(Marketing Orientation)
(Market Research)
(Market Segmentation)
(Musings of Shyam Bhatawdekar on every topic on the earth)
(Negotiation Skills)
(Negotiation Tactics)
(Objection Handling)
(Organization Development- OD)
(Organizational Culture)
(Out of Box Ideas)
(Ownership on Job)
(Paradigm and Paradigm Shift)
(Performance Management and Appraisal)
(Positive Strokes)
(Presentation Skills)
(Problem Solving)
(Profit Improvement)
(Project Management)
(Public Speaking)
(Quality Circles History)
(Quality Circles)
(Quality Function Deployment- QFD and House of Quality)
(Quality Gurus)
(Recession Management)
(Recession and Opportunities)
(Recruitment and Selection)
(Research Methodology)
(Safety and Health Management)
(Sales/Selling Process)
(Sales Promotion)
(Self Motivation or Internal Motivation)
(Self Development)
(Shyam Bhatawdekar’s Articles on Management)
(Six Sigma)
(Six Thinking Hats)
(Soft Skills)
(Spiritual Quotient/Intelligence)
(Statistics- Basic)
(Strategic Management)
(Stress Management)
(Stress Management)
(Success in Life or Success)
(Success in Life or Success)
(Supply Chain Management)
(Supply and Demand)
(Talent Management)
(Team Building)
(Telephone Etiquette)
(Three Sixty Degrees Appraisal System)
(Time Management)
(Total Productive Maintenance- TPM)
(Total Quality Management- TQM)
(Training and Development)
(Trainers’ Qualities)
(Transaction Analysis- TA)
(TRIZ- Inventive Problem Solving)
(Value Engineering/Analysis)
(Winners and Losers)
(Work Study: Method Study and Work Measurement)
(Work Methods or Practices: Efficient)
(World Class Manufacturing)
(Writings of Shyam Bhatawdekar on Management)
(Written Communication)
(Zero Based Budgeting)

Counseling: General and Psychological
(Anger Management)
(Children’s Behavior Problems)
(Cholesterol Control)
(Counseling: Psychological)
(Counseling: Psychological)
(Cross Cultural Etiquette)
(Executive Etiquette and Manners)
(Family Counseling)
(Health: Homeopathy)
(LifeManagement: Competencies)
(Life Management: Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Life management: I Am Liberated)
(Marriage Counseling)
(Ownership on Job)
(Parental Responsibilities)
(Qualities of Spouse)
(Quit Smoking)
(Self Development)
(Stress Management)
(Stress Management)
(Swine Flu and Its Prevention)
(Telephone Etiquette)
(Winners and Losers)

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Home Tips
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(Entertainment: Movies)
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(Plagiarized, Copied or Inspired Hindi Movies)
(Health: Homeopathy)
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General Knowledge and Out of Box Ideas
(General Knowledge- GK)
(General Knowledge- Top 5 of Everything)
(General Knowledge- Top 10 of Everything)
(Out of Box Ideas)
(Shyam Bhatawdekar’s Knols)
(Running Commentary on the Run)